Table of Contents

 

Executive Summary                                                                                                                       

Literature Review                                                                                                                          

Review of Leadership Competency Models                                                                                   

Content Analysis of O*NET and an Existing Competency Model                                                   

Interviews with Student Leaders                                                                                                    

Survey of Alumni                                                                                                                         

Survey of Employers                                                                                                                     

Interviews with Faculty                                                                                                                  

Interviews with Leadership Council                                                                                                

Interviews with Administrators                                                                                                       

Integrating Information Collected                                                                                                  

Academic References                                                                                                                  

Internet References

Appendix A: A Priori Model of Leadership Competencies                                                      

Appendix B: Initial Definitions of Leadership Competency Dimensions      

Appendix C: Sorting Exercises of O*NET Knowledges                                                    

Appendix D: Sorting Exercises of O*NET Cross-Functional Skills                                       

Appendix E: Sorting Exercises of O*NET Abilities                                                                       

Appendix F: Sorting Exercises of O*NET Work Styles                                                        

Appendix G: Sorting Exercises of O*NET Generalized Work Activities                                   

Appendix H: Sorting Exercises of O*NET Work Contexts                                                          

Appendix I: Sorting Exercises of O*NET Organizational Contexts                                              

Appendix J: Interview Guides for Student Leaders                                                                       

Appendix K: Interview Guides for Alumni                                                                         

Appendix L: Interview Guides for Employers                                                                   

Appendix M: Interview Guides for Faculty                                                                        

Appendix N: Interview Guides for Leadership Council                                                

Appendix O: Interview Guides for Administrators 

Appendix P: Highlights from Interviews with the University Community                                                           

 

Executive Summary

 

This report functions as a description of the process used to develop a leadership competency model. Although a variety of organizations could utilize this competency model, it was created with Central Michigan University’s student leaders as the intended focal point. The leadership competency model is being distributed to members of the campus community, including the Leadership Institute, the Leadership Council, members of the administration, faculty, interested employers, and interested student groups.  The competency model was created by eight graduate students and Dr. Stephen Wagner in the Industrial/Organizational Psychology Practicum class during the fall semester of 2004.  This model will serve as a basis for creating tools to aid in the development of leaders, including a multi-source feedback instrument and a handbook of developmental activities for leaders.

 

The purpose of the competency model is to help student leaders develop their skills, knowledge, and abilities in order to successfully perform in current and future leadership roles.  Five leadership competency dimensions, as well as specific competencies for each dimension, were identified through examination of leadership literature, competency model literature, existing leadership competency models, taxonomies of relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities in the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), and through conducting interviews with different groups of constituents having a vested interest in leadership development.

 

Each class member provided unique insights gathered from the above sources and collaborated to develop the competency model.  Each class member took responsibility for gathering data from a specific constituency and providing information from that process.  The following technical report provides detailed descriptions of the process for developing this leadership competency model. The appendices of the report provide interview guides and sorting exercises utilized in the process of developing the competency model.

 

Back to top

 

Literature Review

 

The literature review consisted of readings on two subjects, the concept and process of competency modeling, and leadership theory and development.  References for the literature reviewed are listed on page 10. The process began with readings describing what competency models are, how they are developed, and how they relate to the more common practice of job analysis (Schippmann, 1999).  Effective interviewing techniques were reviewed to enhance qualitative data collection skills (Stewart & Cash, 1988).  The critical incidence technique of job analysis was also reviewed (Levine, 1983). Once a foundation for understanding competency models was established, theories of leadership and leadership development were reviewed. Sources were academically oriented and included books (e.g.,  Northouse, 2004) and journal articles (e.g., Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, & Van Engen, 2003). Topics reviewed included issues such as leadership development, ethics, diversity, self-concept, gender, and leading under pressure.  In addition to these sources, a book on O*NET (Peterson, Mumford, Borman, Jeanneret, & Fleishman, 1999) provided guidance in how leadership core competencies could be conceptualized and described. 

 

Back to top 

 

Review of Leadership Competency Models

 

An Internet search for existing leadership competency models yielded a wide variety of results in terms of quality, content, and appearance.  The Websites reviewed are presented on page 12. The majority of the models reviewed came from government and military organizations.  Additional sources were academic institutions and private corporations.  The models were very diverse in quality.  While some had specific definitions for factors, others were vague and abstract.  The content of some of the models was extremely thorough, whereas, others had limited content and a narrow definition of leadership.  Most of the models included competencies related to task management and leading others; however the inclusion of other factors was inconsistent across models.  Many competencies were also tailored to the organization for which the model was established.  These existing models were reviewed and discussed among the practicum class.

 

After reviewing existing leadership competency models, each member of the practicum class developed their own leadership competency model.  The models were broad, ranging from three up to ten or more factors.  These models were again reviewed and discussed within the group.  Aggregating the information learned from the existing and created competency models, the practicum class reached a consensus model (see Appendix A).  This a priori model consisted of five dimensions with numerous potential core competencies listed under each dimension. The a priori model served as a basis for discussion and a reference utilized in defining the leadership dimensions and conducting interviews and content analyses. Initial definitions of each dimension were also developed by small groups and refined by discussion of the whole group (see Appendix B).

 

Back to top 

 

Content Analysis of O*NET and an Existing Competency Model

 

            The content of O*NET and an existing competency taxonomy for management (Schippman, 1999) were also analyzed by the class.  O*NET is an online descriptive reference tool developed and maintained by the United States Department of Labor.  This tool provides an extensive list of jobs and describes the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to successfully perform these jobs.  O*NET breaks down job characteristics into twenty-one categories; several of these categories were relevant to leadership.  These include:  basic and cross-functional skills, knowledges, abilities, work styles, generalized work activities, work context, and organizational context.  Sorting exercises completed for these aspects of O*NET are presented in Appendices C through I. The eight members of the practicum class individually indicated which competencies within each category were relevant to leadership development.  Competencies identified as relevant were sorted into the dimensions of the model.  To determine which competencies to retain, a consensus approach was used.  At least four of members of the practicum class had to agree that the competency was applicable to leadership in order for the competency to be retained.  For those competencies that were rated as important to multiple dimensions, the dimension the competency was categorized under was determined by short discussion.  A similar process was used to sort the work activities in Schippmann’s (1999) management taxonomy.  The practicum class then collectively defined the competencies identified as important, and eliminated any redundant items to arrive at the final competency list for each dimension.

 

Back to top

 

Interviews with Student Leaders

 

The opinions of current CMU students in various leadership positions on campus were   highly relevant because the focus of the leadership competency model was to aid student leadership. Their direct and immediate experience with student leadership roles were explored through the process of interviewing.

 

Two members of the practicum class were assigned the task of interviewing student leaders on campus. The first step of the process was to identify the sample. In this stage the researchers examined the list of Registered Student Organizations on campus on CMU’s Student Life website. From this preliminary list, organizations were eliminated that were not academically or service oriented. Those eliminated included clubs such as social fraternities, sororities, and sports teams. The list reduced to forty organizations. Presidents of these organizations were contacted through e-mail and by phone and were requested to participate in an interview. Overall fifteen of the forty student leaders responded and agreed to be interviewed. The interview process generally lasted from 30-45 minutes. Two separate forms of the interview were used (see Appendix J). In addition to the lead questions in the interview guides, several probing questions were asked depending on the responses provided and the interviewees’ area of expertise. Interviewees were also requested to complete a critical incident survey.  These asked for examples of either excellent or poor leadership in each of the five dimensions identified in the a priori competency model. Four of the fifteen interviewees returned the filled out critical incidents.

 

Back to top 

 

Survey of Alumni

         Graduates of CMU were also thought to have valuable insights about leadership. Their insights on the competencies of leadership were explored through the process of surveying.

        Guidelines for content of the interview questions were developed by the class, and a survey was developed based on these guidelines so that it would contain all of the components of the interview questions in a format that could be administered electronically (see Appendix K).  This was done to reach a greater number of respondents so as to collect more information.  To keep the survey at a reasonable length, the questions were split so that a Form A and Form B existed.  The Leadership Survey Form A contained questions regarding the competencies and work activities that a leader must have or be able to perform and Form B contained questions regarding the environment that a leader must work in and the strategic factors to which they must be able to adapt.  A Critical Incident Leadership Survey was also developed to find anecdotal evidence of either exceptional or poor leadership.  The Critical Incident Leadership Survey Form A asked respondents to give examples of both good and poor leadership for the following competencies: Self-Management, Leading Others, and Social Responsibility, and Form B asked for examples of good and poor leadership for the following competencies: Leading Others, Task Management, and Innovation.  The surveys were checked by the instructor and were given to three outside parties to check for ease of completion and comprehensibility of instructions prior to administration.

 

The Alumni Office of Central Michigan University and the Leadership Office were contacted for lists of alumni to participate in the survey.  The Alumni Office sent a long list of names (over 200), over half of which included usable e-mail addresses.  Additionally, all of the names on the alumni list had been identified as an outstanding leader, and most of them had very prestigious job titles.  A total of 83 e-mails were sent out containing either Leadership Survey Form A or Form B, and 39 e-mails were sent out containing the Critical Incident Survey Form A or Form B.  Complete responses were received from 13 respondents for Leadership Survey Form A, 5 for Leadership Survey Form B, and 3 for Critical Incident Leadership Survey Form A.  In total, 122 e-mails were sent out with 21 respondents completing the surveys, resulting in a response rate of 17.2%.

 

Back to top  

 

Survey of Employers

 

Preparing students to succeed in leadership roles during their careers is an important goal of leadership development at CMU. Employers of CMU graduates were surveyed to identify leadership competency requirements in their organizations. 

 

The process for gathering data from employers began with development of a survey instrument.  It was determined that the survey would be sent out to specific individuals in organizations that hired CMU students, and so the instrument needed to be designed in a way that would be easily accessible.  The interview was a document that could be downloaded and completed and returned via electronic communications (see Appendix L).  This meant that the number of questions needed to be minimized in order to increase the chances that the respondent would fill out the survey.  The survey was divided into two parts.  One list of questions was developed and then divided up into two forms so that all questions would get asked, but not all to the same person.  At the end of both forms was attached a second section seeking information about a positive and a negative critical incident on leadership.  This section was the same for both forms.  These critical incident questions were written about only one of the five competency dimensions; therefore, each survey that was sent out asked about only one of the five dimensions, but all five were rotated to different respondents so they would be distributed equally. 

 

Identifying potential respondents was made easy by the fortunate timing of a career fair that was hosted by CMU.  Included in the career fair materials was a document which listed 97 e-mail addresses of potential employers of CMU graduates.  Rather than just sending the surveys directly to the e-mails listed, it was determined that going to the career fair and providing handouts and discussing the upcoming e-mail survey would maximize the probability of a good response rate.  The surveys were e-mailed within one week of the career fair, and 17 surveys from employees at a diverse group of organizations were returned with partial or complete responses.  The most frequently omitted section was the critical incident questions, however, all respondents provided a wealth of information and perspectives about leadership.

 

Back to top

 

Interviews with Faculty

 

Faculty from a wide range of disciplines at Central Michigan University were selected as potential interviewees in an effort to validate the competency model.  Faculty members were chosen for several reasons.  First, the competency model was designed primarily for use by university students to develop as leaders, and many undergraduate students view faculty as role models for leadership in the academic setting.  Additionally, the faculty of the university provided a convenient opportunity to interview professionals across a wide range of job families in one location.

 

Twenty faculty members representing every college at Central Michigan University (College of Business Administration, College of Communication and Fine Arts, College of Education and Human Services, College of Health Professions, College of Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences, and College of Science and Technology) were initially contacted via e-mail and office phone.  Faculty were selected based on representation of the widest possible range of major fields, demographic characteristics, and courses taught (e.g. some faculty teach courses designated as “leadership” courses at the university).  Nine faculty members agreed to participate, resulting in a response rate of 45%.  No faculty from the College of Science and Technology chose to participate; all other colleges were well represented in the final group of interviewees. 

 

Participating faculty were all interviewed in person by one member of the practicum class; the same interviewer used an identical structured interview guide to interview all faculty members (see Appendix M).  Thus, the interviews were standardized with the exception of individualized follow-up probes when appropriate, resulting in a semi-structured interview format.  In general, the nine faculty interviewees were asked to evaluate the initial competency model dimensions in terms of relevance to the applied practice of their discipline and to speculate regarding the future of leadership in their discipline as well as how Central Michigan University students can best prepare themselves to become leaders in these fields outside of the academic setting.  Interviews ranged from thirty minutes to one hour in duration.  Information gathered from faculty interviews was then used to enhance the competency model.  Additions and deletions were made where appropriate, and added material was kept in as close to the original language of the interviewees as possible while protecting the confidentiality of the interviewees.

 

Back to top
 

Interviews with Leadership Council

 

            One member of the practicum class was assigned to conduct one-on-one interviews with CMU’s Leadership Council. This group is one of the many committees reporting to the Academic Senate and is responsible for creating, regulating, and modifying university-wide programs and courses relating to the study of leadership.  This committee is comprised of two student representatives and eight faculty/administration members. Because of their integral role with leadership study at CMU, their opinions and views regarding the definition of leadership and vital aspects to leadership development were essential to incorporate.

           

Over the course of two weeks, eight faculty/administrators from the Leadership Council were interviewed. Each interview was conducted either in the privacy of the council member’s office or another private setting. Length of the interview time ranged from forty minutes to as long as two hours. This varied length of time was based on the degree of detail of interviewee responses and their willingness to continue with the interview process over more than one interview session. Only two council members were unable to complete the entire interview form (see Appendix N).

           

Within twenty-four hours after the interview’s conclusion, a thank-you e-mail was individually sent to each interviewee by the interviewer. This e-mail included survey questions tapping critical incidents of leadership behavior (see Appendix N). Interviewees were asked to respond to the critical incident survey as an e-mail reply.

           

Overall, 100% (eight of the eight council members) agreed to an interview and provided responses in a one-on-one interview format. Responses were collected for three weeks instead of the original two due to requests for additional time from some of the council members. This resulted in a 63% response rate to the critical leadership incident survey (i.e. 5 of the eight council members provided a leadership story).

 

Back to top 

 

Interviews with Administrators

 

Administrators of CMU were also thought to have valuable insights about leadership. Because of their various authority positions on campus and their effect on the current leadership culture at CMU, the opinions of members of this constituency were also considered highly relevant to the development of a student model of leadership development at CMU. 

 

Participants of this interview process included five top administrative leaders, although more were approached, at Central Michigan University. The goal was to identify those competencies that these leaders felt are, or were, most important to leadership.  Scheduling was an issue with this set of participants. Most have busy schedules, therefore interviews ranged from fifteen minutes in length to one hour. All participants seemed willing to help out and displayed an interest in the study. An effort was taken at the beginning of each interview to establish a rapport with each interviewee. This was done both to introduce the interviewer and respective department to the interviewee, as well as to increase the likelihood of an open and frank discussion of the topic. Time was also taken to explain the topic at hand and indicate the goals of the interview.

 

            All participants believed that “honesty” and “integrity” were the foremost qualities needed by a leader. Nearly all participants agreed with the a priori model we had developed. Other recommendations that stood out were the ideas of Giving and Receiving Feedback, Leading by Example, and Accountability. As well, the idea of competencies being compensatory was put forth. Being Compensatory refers to the ability to identify one’s weaknesses and delegate tasks that require those skills to a constituent. Most felt that there is a minimum requirement of overall competency to become a leader. A copy of all interviews can be found in Appendix O.

 

Back to top

 

Integrating Information Collected

 

        The report titled, ‘A Leadership Competency Model: Describing the Capacity to Lead’, was developed by integrating the information collected during the literature review, content analyses, interviews, and surveys. First, core competencies for each dimension of the leadership competency model and important situations for each dimension were identified through the content analyses. The model was then supplemented with information collected during the interviews, surveys, and literature review. The practicum class refined the content of the report individually, in small groups, and in discussions involving the entire class. Core competencies in each dimension of leadership competency were organized into common factors.  Definitions of each dimension were refined. Highlight of interviews with the university community were prepared. In the final report, each dimension of leadership competency was described by: a) displaying a model of the core competencies for that dimension, b) defining the leadership dimension, c) providing examples of excellent and poor leadership behavior for that dimension, d) defining the core competencies for that dimension, and e) identifying situations that require focusing on that dimension.

 

Back to top
 

Academic References

 

Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1998). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership. http://cls.binghamton.edu/BassSteid.html

 

Chemers, M.M., Watson, C.B., May, S.T. (2000).  Dispositional affect and leadership effectiveness:  A comparison of self-esteem, optimism, and efficacy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 267-277.

 

Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & Van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing men and women. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591.

 

Fulmer, R. M. (2004). The challenge of ethical leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 307-317.

 

Gardner, W. L., & Schermerhorn, J. R. Jr. (2004). Unleashing individual potential: Performance gains through positive

            organizational behavior and authentic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 270-281.

 

Greenberg, J. (2005). Managing behavior in organizations (4th Ed.). Pearson-Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River,

            New Jersey.

 

Hellenbeck, G. P., & Hall D. T. (2004). Self-confidence and leader performance. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 254-269.

 

Levine, E. L. (1983). Everything you always wanted to know about job analysis and more!-- A job analysis primer. Tampa, FL: Mariner Publishing Co.

 

London, M. (2002).  Introduction:  Dimensions of effective leadership.  In Leadership Development (pp. 1-24). Mahwah,

            NJ:  LEA.

 

London, M., & Maurer, T. J. (2004). Leadership development: A diagnostic model for continuous learning in dynamic organizations. In The Nature of Leadership, Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A. T., & Sternberg, R. J. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

Lorenzi, P. (2004). Managing for the common good: Prosocial leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 282-291.

 

McCauley, C.D. (2004).  Successful and Unsuccessful Leadership.  In Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A.T., and Sternberg, R.J. (eds) The Nature of Leadership.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.

 

McKenna, R. B., & Yost, P. R. (2004). The differentiated leader: Specific strategies for handling today’s adverse situations. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 292-306.

 

Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

 

Peterson, N. G., Mumford, M. D., Borman, W. C., Jeanneret, P. R., & Fleishman, E. A. (1999). An occupational

            information system for the 21st century: The development of O*NET. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological

            Association.

 

Riggio, R. E., Ciulla, J. B., & Sorenson, G. J. (2003). Leadership education at the undergraduate level: A liberal arts approach to leadership development. In Murphy, S. E., & Riggio, R. E. (Eds.), The future of leadership development (pp. 223-236). Mahwah, NJ: USum Associates.

 

Schippmann, J. S. (1999). Strategic job modeling: Working at the core of integrated human resources. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.

 

Stewart, C. J., & Cash, W. B. (1988). Interviewing: Principles and practices (5th Ed.). Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

 

Van Fleet, D. D. (1974). Toward identifying critical elements in a behavioral description of leadership. Public Personnel Management, 3, 70-82.

 

Van Velsor, E., McCauley, C.D., & Moxley, R.S. (1998). Our view of leadership development. The Center for Creative

            Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Back to top
 

Internet References

 

The Air War College’s Center for Strategic Leadership Studies, http://leadership.au.af.mil/sls-skil.htm

 

The Air Force’s Leadership Development Model, http://leadership.au.af.mil/af/afldm.htm

 

Alberta Public Service:  http://www.pao.gov.ab.ca/learning/competencies/apscomp/

 

Army ROTC leadership minor.  (n.d.)  Retrieved September 4, 2004, from Slippery Rock University website:  http://www.sru.edu/pages/286.asp

 

Business Leadership Center.  (n.d.)  Retrieved September 4, 2004, from Virginia Tech website:  http://www.cob.vt.edu/buslead/BLM%20Home.htm

 

The Center for Naval Leadership’s Handbook for Civilian Leadership Training, https://www.netc.navy.mil/cnet/cld/cld_imphb.pdf

 

The Coast Guard’s Competencies for Leadership Development, http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-w/g-wt/g-wtl/leadci/index.htm

 

Leadership competency definitions.  (2004) Retrieved September 9, 2004, from Federal Energy Regulatory Commission website:  http://www.ferc.gov/careers/curr-open/ses-leader.asp

 

IRS Leadership Competency Model (21 competencies resulting from a 360 assessment study, presented  by Dr Jim Trinka, Director of Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness, IRS Strategic Human Resources), http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/360_study_wye.ppt

 

The Leadership Center Competency Model from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/gov/lanl-ldr-devguide.pdf

 

Maine Management Services. (2004). Leadership competencies for Maine state government. Retrieved September 8, 2004, from http://www.maine.gov/bhr/mms/leadership/index.html

 

NASA’s Leadership Development Model, http://leadership.nasa.gov/nasa/lmd/home.htm

 

The Office of Personnel Management’s Leadership Competencies and Key Characteristics, http://www.opm.gov/ses/competent.asp

 

Tufts University.  (2003).  Tufts university leadership competency model.  Retrieved September, 2004, from http://www.tufts.edu/hr/odt/comp_model.htm

 

U. S. Coast Guard.  (2004, February).  Coast guard leadership competencies.  Retrieved September, 2004, from http://www.uscg.mil/leadership/leadci/encl1.htm


Back to top
 

Appendix A: A Priori Leadership Competency Model

 

Self Management

Influencing Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Trait Theories of Leadership

Behavioral Leadership Theories

Situational Leadership Theories

Transformational Leadership Theory

Leadership Ethics

Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

Leader-Member Exchange Theory

Decision-Making Theories of Leadership

Charismatic Leadership Theory

Task-specific Ethical Standards

Self-Image Theories

Influence Tactics/ Persuasion

Electronic-Leadership Theories

Systems Thinking, Open-Systems Theories

Cultural Diversity/ Civil Rights/Global Awareness

Knowledge of Personal Values

Group Dynamics (e.g., minority influence)

Task-specific Knowledge & Experience

Diverse, Interdisciplinary

Knowledge & Experience

Theories of Moral Development

Seeking Feedback

Oral and Written Communication

Goal-Setting

Strategic Planning

Recognizing Defining Moments

Stress Management

Conflict Management

Delegation

Creativity

Defining Ethical Issues

Independent, Continuous Learning

Team Building

Providing Feedback (Praise & Criticism)

Creating a vision

Identifying Affected Parties/Consequences

Acknowledges Mistakes

Active Listening

Resource Management

Recognizing Opportunities

Moral Reasoning

Introspection

Negotiation

Time Management

Taking Initiative

Empathy

Adaptation

Coalition Building

Problem-Solving

Inferential Thinking

Keeping Promises

Tolerance for Ambiguity

Political Savvy

Empowering Others

Resilience

Honesty

Self-esteem

Non-verbal Communication

Setting Priorities

Entrepreneurial Risk Taking

Sense of Civic Responsibility

Self-efficacy

Extraversion

Conscientiousness

Persistence/Determination

Integrity

Courage

Agreeableness

Work Ethic

Cognitive Ability

Respect for Others

Emotional Stability

Emotional Intelligence

Position Power

Openness to Experience

Compassion

Internal Self-monitoring

Sense of Humor

Need for Achievement

Resourcefulness

Values Fairness

Self-actualizing

Values Relationships

Values Development of Others

Need to Test Status Quo

Values Citizenship


 

Back to top

 

Appendix B: Initial Definitions of Leadership Competency Dimensions

 

 

Self Management

 

Good leaders know their own values, strengths, and limitations and are able to control their emotions and behaviors. They must seek personal development by being willing to seek help when needed or admit when they have made a mistake and by engaging in continuous learning. They should be able to manage and adapt to stressful or dynamic situation.

 

Leading Others

 

Leaders must maximize the potential of others to meet the organization’s vision, mission, and goals. They must be able to manage individual and group performance with an understanding of group dynamics and team building. Leaders must actively listen and communicate effectively to persuade others and build consensus and trust. They should understand and be empathetic toward individual’s emotions and needs and be able to resolve conflicts in a respectful manner.

 

Task Management

 

Leaders are ultimately responsible for the group/organization attaining its objectives.  This involves using task-specific knowledge and experience to guide the group/organization. Leaders must engage in problem solving, delegation, time and resource management, and setting priorities and goals. Leaders must strive for results and provide feedback to ensure effective contributions from all constituents. Successful leaders empower others and model good work ethics.

 

Innovation

 

Leaders must be able to think creatively while taking initiative and calculated risks. Effective leaders have a vision beyond the immediate work of the group/organization. This involves exploring and integrating diverse perspectives, recognizing unexpected opportunities, and obtaining resources needed to achieve progress.

 

Social Responsibility

 

Leaders must act with integrity, honesty, and justice. They must work in the best interest of others, showing respect and empathy for unique individual and cultural differences. Good leaders create a culture that promotes high ethical standards along with personal, organizational, and civic responsibility. Ethical leaders recognize and conduct themselves in concert with universal moral principles as well as specific values, laws, and ethics relevant to their group/organization.

 

Back to top        

              

Appendix C: Sorting Exercise for O*NET Knowledges

 

Knowledges

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Administration and Management

 

 

 

 

 

Clerical

 

 

 

 

 

Economics and Accounting

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and Marketing

 

 

 

 

 

Customer and Personal Service

 

 

 

 

 

Personnel and Human Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Production and Processing

 

 

 

 

 

Food Production

 

 

 

 

 

Computers and Electronics

 

 

 

 

 

Engineering and Technology

 

 

 

 

 

Design

 

 

 

 

 

Building and Construction

 

 

 

 

 

Mechanical

 

 

 

 

 

Mathematics

 

 

 

 

 

Physics

 

 

 

 

 

Chemistry

 

 

 

 

 

Biology

 

 

 

 

 

Psychology

 

 

 

 

 

Sociology and Anthropology

 

 

 

 

 

Geography

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine and Dentistry

 

 

 

 

 

Therapy and Counseling

 

 

 

 

 

Education and Training

 

 

 

 

 

English Language

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knowledges

 

 

 

Self Management

 

 

 

Leading Others

 

 

 

Task Management

 

 

 

Innovation

 

 

 

Social Responsibility

Foreign Language

 

 

 

 

 

Fine Arts

 

 

 

 

 

History and Archaeology

 

 

 

 

 

Philosophy and Theology

 

 

 

 

 

Public Safety and Security

 

 

 

 

 

Law, Government, and Jurisprudence

 

 

 

 

 

Tele- communications

 

 

 

 

 

Communications and Media

 

 

 

 

 

Transportation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top

 

Appendix D: Sorting Exercise for O*Net Basic and Cross-Functional Skills

 

Basic & Cross-Functional Skills

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Reading Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

Active Listening

 

 

 

 

 

Writing

 

 

 

 

 

Speaking

 

 

 

 

 

Mathematics

 

 

 

 

 

Science

 

 

 

 

 

Active Learning

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Strategies

 

 

 

 

 

Monitoring

 

 

 

 

 

Critical Thinking

 

 

 

 

 

Problem Identification

 

 

 

 

 

Information Gathering

 

 

 

 

 

Information Organization

 

 

 

 

 

Synthesis/ Reorganization

 

 

 

 

 

Idea Generation

 

 

 

 

 

Idea Evaluation

 

 

 

 

 

Implementation Planning

 

 

 

 

 

Solution Appraisal

 

 

 

 

 

Social Perceptiveness

 

 

 

 

 

Coordination

 

 

 

 

 

Persuasion

 

 

 

 

 

Negotiation

 

 

 

 

 

Instructing

 

 

 

 

 

Service Orientation

 

 

 

 

 

Operations Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

Technology Design

 

 

 

 

 


 

Basic & Cross-Functional Skills

 

 

Self Management

 

 

Leading Others

 

 

Task Management

 

 

Innovation

 

 

Social Responsibility

Equipment Selection

 

 

 

 

 

Installation

 

 

 

 

 

Programming

 

 

 

 

 

Testing

 

 

 

 

 

Operation Monitoring

 

 

 

 

 

Operation and Control

 

 

 

 

 

Product Inspection

 

 

 

 

 

Equipment Maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

Troubleshooting

 

 

 

 

 

Repairing

 

 

 

 

 

Visioning

 

 

 

 

 

Systems Perception

 

 

 

 

 

Identification of Downstream Consequences

 

 

 

 

 

Identification of Key Causes

 

 

 

 

 

Judgment and Decision Making

 

 

 

 

 

Systems Evaluation

 

 

 

 

 

Time Management

 

 

 

 

 

Management of Financial Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Management of Material Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Management of Personnel Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top

 

Appendix E: Sorting Exercise for O*NET Abilities

 

Abilities

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Oral comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

Written comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

Oral Expression

 

 

 

 

 

Written Expression

 

 

 

 

 

Fluency of Ideas

 

 

 

 

 

Originality

 

 

 

 

 

Problem Sensitivity

 

 

 

 

 

Deductive Reasoning

 

 

 

 

 

Inductive Reasoning

 

 

 

 

 

Information Gathering

 

 

 

 

 

Category Flexibility

 

 

 

 

 

Mathematical Reasoning

 

 

 

 

 

Number Facility

 

 

 

 

 

Memorization

 

 

 

 

 

Speed of Closure

 

 

 

 

 

Flexibility of Closure

 

 

 

 

 

Perceptual Speed

 

 

 

 

 

Spatial Organization

 

 

 

 

 

Visualization

 

 

 

 

 

Selective Attention

 

 

 

 

 

Time Sharing

 

 

 

 

 

Arm-hand Steadiness

 

 

 

 

 

Manual Dexterity

 

 

 

 

 

Finger Dexterity

 

 

 

 

 

Control Precision

 

 

 

 

 

Multilimb Coordination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abilities

 

Self Management

 

Leading Others

 

Task Management

 

Innovation

 

Social Responsibility

Response Orientation

 

 

 

 

 

Rate Control

 

 

 

 

 

Reaction Time

 

 

 

 

 

Wrist-Finger Speed

 

 

 

 

 

Speed of Limb Movement

 

 

 

 

 

Static Strength

 

 

 

 

 

Explosive Strength

 

 

 

 

 

Dynamic Strength

 

 

 

 

 

Trunk Strength

 

 

 

 

 

Stamina

 

 

 

 

 

Extent Flexibility

 

 

 

 

 

Dynamic Flexibility

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Body Coordination

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Body Equilibrium

 

 

 

 

 

Near Vision

 

 

 

 

 

Far Vision

 

 

 

 

 

Visual Color Discrimination

 

 

 

 

 

Night Vision

 

 

 

 

 

Peripheral Vision

 

 

 

 

 

Depth Perception

 

 

 

 

 

Glare Sensitivity

 

 

 

 

 

Hearing Sensitivity

 

 

 

 

 

Auditory Attention

 

 

 

 

 

Sound Localization

 

 

 

 

 

Speech Recognition

 

 

 

 

 

Speech Clarity

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top
 

Appendix F: Sorting Exercise for O*NET Work Styles

 

Work Styles

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Achievement/ Effort

 

 

 

 

 

Persistence

 

 

 

 

 

Initiative

 

 

 

 

 

Energy

 

 

 

 

 

Leadership Orientation

 

 

 

 

 

Cooperation

 

 

 

 

 

Concern for Others

 

 

 

 

 

Social Orientation

 

 

 

 

 

Self-Control

 

 

 

 

 

Stress Tolerance

 

 

 

 

 

Adaptability/ Flexibility

 

 

 

 

 

Dependability

 

 

 

 

 

Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

 

Integrity

 

 

 

 

 

Independence

 

 

 

 

 

Innovation

 

 

 

 

 

Analytic Thinking

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top
 

Appendix G: Sorting Exercise for O*NET Generalized Work Activities

 

Generalized Work Activities

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Getting information needed for job

 

 

 

 

 

Monitoring processes, …

 

 

 

 

 

Identifying objects, actions…

 

 

 

 

 

Inspecting equipment…

 

 

 

 

 

Estimating characteristics of materials…

 

 

 

 

 

Judging the qualities of objects, services or persons

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluating information for compliance

 

 

 

 

 

Processing information

 

 

 

 

 

Analyzing data

 

 

 

 

 

Making decisions/solving problems

 

 

 

 

 

Thinking creatively

 

 

 

 

 

Updating and using job knowledge

 

 

 

 

 

Developing objectives and strategies

 

 

 

 

 

Scheduling work and activities

 

 

 

 

 

Organizing, planning, prioritizing work

 

 

 

 

 

Performing general physical activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Generalized Work Activities

 

Self Management

 

Leading Others

 

Task Management

 

Innovation

 

Social Responsibility

Handling and moving objects

 

 

 

 

 

Controlling machines and processes

 

 

 

 

 

Operating vehicles, equipment

 

 

 

 

 

Interacting with computers

 

 

 

 

 

Drafting, laying-out, and specifying technical devices

 

 

 

 

 

Implementing ideas, programs, systems…

 

 

 

 

 

Repairing and maintaining mechanical equipment

 

 

 

 

 

Repairing and maintaining electronic equipment

 

 

 

 

 

Documenting and recording information

 

 

 

 

 

Interpreting the meaning of information for others

 

 

 

 

 

Communicating with coworkers

 

 

 

 

 

Communicating with persons outside organization

 

 

 

 

 

Establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships

 

 

 

 

 

 

Generalized Work Activities

 

Self Management

 

Leading Others

 

Task Management

 

Innovation

 

Social Responsibility

Assisting and caring for others

 

 

 

 

 

Selling or influencing others

 

 

 

 

 

Resolving conflicts and negotiating with others

 

 

 

 

 

Performing for or working directly with the public

 

 

 

 

 

Coordinating the work and activities of others

 

 

 

 

 

Developing and building teams

 

 

 

 

 

Teaching others

 

 

 

 

 

Guiding, directing , and motivating subordinates

 

 

 

 

 

Coaching and developing others

 

 

 

 

 

Providing consultation and advice to others

 

 

 

 

 

Performing administrative activities

 

 

 

 

 

Staffing organizational units

 

 

 

 

 

Monitoring and controlling resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top
 

Appendix H: Sorting Exercise for O*NET Work Contexts

 

Work Context

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Formality of Communication

 

 

 

 

 

Communication Method

 

 

 

 

 

Objectivity of Information Communicated

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency of Job-Required Social Interaction

 

 

 

 

 

Privacy of Communication

 

 

 

 

 

Supervisory Roles

 

 

 

 

 

Sales Roles

 

 

 

 

 

Service Roles

 

 

 

 

 

Adversarial Roles

 

 

 

 

 

Team Participation Roles

 

 

 

 

 

Responsibility for Safety of Others

 

 

 

 

 

Interpersonal Conflict

 

 

 

 

 

Strained Interpersonal Relation

 

 

 

 

 

Types of Work Settings

 

 

 

 

 

Privacy of Work Area

 

 

 

 

 

Physical Proximity

 

 

 

 

 

Exposure to Extreme Environmental Conditions

 

 

 

 

 

Exposure to Job Hazards

 

 

 

 

 

Possibility of Injury

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Context

 

Self Management

 

Leading Others

 

Task Management

 

Innovation

 

Social Responsibility

Impact of Injury

 

 

 

 

 

Body Positioning

 

 

 

 

 

Work Attire

 

 

 

 

 

 Consequence of Error

 

 

 

 

 

Impact of Decision

 

 

 

 

 

Responsibility/ Accountability

 

 

 

 

 

Decision Latitude

 

 

 

 

 

Frustrating Circumstances

 

 

 

 

 

Degree of Automation

 

 

 

 

 

Task Clarity

 

 

 

 

 

Required Precision

 

 

 

 

 

Required Attention to Detail

 

 

 

 

 

Required Maintenance of Vigilance

 

 

 

 

 

Monotony/ Repetitive Activities

 

 

 

 

 

Structured vs. Unstructured Work

 

 

 

 

 

Level of Competition

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency and Stringency of Deadlines

 

 

 

 

 

Distractions and Interruptions

 

 

 

 

 

Machine Driven Work Pace

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top

 

Appendix I: Sorting Exercise for O*NET Organizational Contexts

 

Organizational Context

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Organization Size

 

 

 

 

 

Hierarchy

 

 

 

 

 

Specialization

 

 

 

 

 

Formalization

 

 

 

 

 

Standardization

 

 

 

 

 

Decentralization

 

 

 

 

 

Employee Empowerment

 

 

 

 

 

Information Sharing

 

 

 

 

 

Individual vs. Team Structure

 

 

 

 

 

Type of Work Teams

 

 

 

 

 

Job Characteristics

 

 

 

 

 

Recruitment Planning

 

 

 

 

 

Recruitment Operations

 

 

 

 

 

Selection Processes

 

 

 

 

 

Selection Methods

 

 

 

 

 

Group Socialization

 

 

 

 

 

Individualized Socialization

 

 

 

 

 

Training Methods

 

 

 

 

 

Use of Data in Training

 

 

 

 

 

Training Topics

 

 

 

 

 

Extent/ Support of Training

 

 

 

 

 

Job Rotation

 

 

 

 

 

Compensation Elements

 

 

 

 

 

Benefits Elements

 

 

 

 

 

Organizational Context

Self Management

Leading Others

Task Management

Innovation

Social Responsibility

Organizational Values

 

 

 

 

 

Extent of Individual Goal Setting

 

 

 

 

 

Individual Goal Specificity

 

 

 

 

 

Availability of Goal Feedback

 

 

 

 

 

Individual Goal Negotiability

 

 

 

 

 

Extent of Organizational Goal Setting

 

 

 

 

 

Organization Goal Specificity

 

 

 

 

 

Role Conflict

 

 

 

 

 

Role Negotiability

 

 

 

 

 

Role Overload

 

 

 

 

 

Leadership Consideration

 

 

 

 

 

Task Orientation

 

 

 

 

 

Visionary

 

 

 

 

 

Problem Solving

 

 

 

 

 

Use of Independent Contractors

 

 

 

 

 

Change in Organizational Structure

 

 

 

 

 

Use of Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to top
 

Appendix J: Interview Guides for Student Leaders

The purpose of this interview is to discuss in detail your role as a student leader on-campus and the responsibilities you assume as the president of ‘RSO Name’, and your expectations of good and bad leadership competencies. We would like you to think carefully and consider your personal experiences before answering each question. Please ask us for clarifications if you are not clear with any part of the question.

 

Leadership Competencies in General

1.     

What activities do you engage in as the president of ‘RSO Name’?

  1.  

What leadership competencies are required for successful handling of your position as the president of your organization?

  1.  

What qualities are unacceptable of a leader?

CMU student Employers

  1.  

What personal qualities and skills do employers look for when employing fresh graduates for leadership positions?

Personal Experience

  1.  

What kind of training have you engaged in to develop leadership skills?

    • What leadership skills do you attribute to your training so far?
  1.  

Think of a problem ‘RSO Name’ faced in which you were primarily involved.

a) Explain the problem.

b) How did you resolve the problem?

c) What specific activities did you engage in to resolve the issue?

d) What activities did you avoid to resolve the issue?

The Three Leadership Competencies

  1.  

What knowledge, skills and abilities are required of a leader to successfully lead others?

  1.  

What knowledge, skills and abilities are required of leader to efficiently manage his/her tasks?

  1.  

What knowledge, skills and abilities are required of a socially responsible leader?

 

 

1.  Consider all of the knowledge, skills and abilities that are important to have in a student leadership position.  Which competencies do you feel are most important to successful leadership?

            A.  Consider each specific facet of leadership…

-         Which competencies are most important for self-management?

-         Which competencies are most important for leading others?

-         Which competencies are most important for task management?

-         Which competencies are most important for innovative leadership?

-         Which competencies are most important in the social responsibility of leadership?

2.  As a student leader, what types of activities do you typically perform in a leadership role?

-         What leadership skills and competencies do you see yourself using in the completion of these tasks?

3.  There can be many factors in the environment that affect how a person leads, such as stress level, and number of people in the group.  What elements in the environment do you feel have an impact on your leadership?  What type of environment do you feel is most conducive to you being successful as a leader?

 

 

Leadership Competencies – Critical Incident Survey

 

The PSY 790I class of fall 2004 is developing a Leadership Competency Model for the Leadership Institute at CMU. You have been selected for this interview because of your unique role as president of ‘RSO Name’ at CMU. This survey focuses on defining competencies that make good and bad leaders. We believe that you will be able to provide us with insightful experiences as a result of the role you execute as the president of your organization and the leadership activities you regularly engage in.

In the following survey we have defined certain competencies that we think are required of leaders. Each competency is explained in brief. We would like you to read carefully the description of each of the competencies, think of a situation or context in which the competency was displayed at its best and the specific activities or behaviors that the leader engaged in that were effective. Similarly think of another situation or context in which the competency was displayed at its worse and the specific activities or behaviors that the leader engaged in that were ineffective. Also, discuss the outcome (consequences) for each incident. You can draw on to your personal experiences as president or you could provide examples of other leaders whom you have interacted with.  Please ask for clarifications if you are not clear with any part of the question.

Self Management: Good leaders know their own values, strengths, and limitations and are able to control their emotions and behaviors. They must seek personal development by being willing to seek help when needed or admit when they have made a mistake and by engaging in continuous learning. They should be able to manage and adapt to stressful or dynamic situation.

Excellent Performance

Explain the incident and the situation leading to the incident.

 

What activities did the leader engage in that was effective?

 

What were the consequences?

 

Poor Performance

Explain the incident and the situation leading to the incident.

 

What activities did the leader engage in that was ineffective?

 

What were the consequences?

 

 

Leading Others: Leaders must maximize the potential of others to meet the organization’s vision, mission, and goals. They must be able to manage individual and group performance with an understanding of group dynamics and team building. Leaders must actively listen and communicate effectively to persuade others and build consensus and trust. They should understand and be empathetic toward individual’s emotions and needs and be able to resolve conflicts in a respectful manner.

Excellent Performance

Explain the incident and the situation leading to the incident.

 

What activities did the leader engage in that was effective?

 

What were the consequences?

 

Poor Performance

Explain the incident and the situation leading to the incident.

 

What activities did the leader engage in that was ineffective?

 

What were the consequences?

 

 
 

Task Management: Leaders are ultimately responsible for the group/organization attaining its objectives.  This involves using task-specific knowledge and experience to guide the group/organization. Leaders must engage in problem solving, delegation, time and resource management, and setting priorities and goals. Leaders must strive for results and provide feedback to ensure effective contributions from all constituents. Successful leaders empower others and model good work ethics.

Excellent Performance

Explain the incident and the situation leading to the incident.

 

What activities did the leader engage in that was effective?

 

What were the consequences?

 

Poor Performance

Explain the incident and the situation leading to the incident.

 

What activities did the leader engage in that was ineffective?

 

What were the consequences?

 

 

Thank you for your participation. We really appreciate your time and effort. If you have any questions regarding this survey or wish to seek results, please contact Professor Steve Wagner at wagne1sw@cmich.edu.

 

Back to top

Appendix K: Surveys for Alumni

Leadership Development Survey

 

Instructions:  Below you will find several questions that ask about different features of leadership.  When considering these questions, please think about the leadership roles that you have experienced since you graduated from CMU.  For each question, please list as many options that you can think of.  To begin typing, simply position the cursor in the first box and left-click once with the mouse.  You may then type your response.  When you are finished simply press an ARROW KEY or the TAB button to navigate to a new box.  Remember to save your responses by clicking on the SAVE button once completed.  Please be as thorough and descriptive as possible, for each question is crucial to our development of a model for leadership competencies.  Thank you very much for taking the time to participate in our survey and help further the development of leadership at CMU.

 

 

  1. What competencies, qualities, abilities, or characteristics do you think are important for leadership development (e.g., integrity or the ability to influence others)?

 

 

a.      What interpersonal competencies are important to aid a leader in working with others?

  

b.     What competencies are important to aid a leader in self-awareness, or the knowledge of one’s self and ability to control one’s emotions?

  

c.      What task management competencies are important to help the leader with the successful and efficient completion of tasks?

  

d.     What innovative competencies would help a leader to be able to expand horizons and adapt to change?

  

e.      What socially responsible competencies would help a leader to act ethically and morally and with respect toward others?

 

  1. What activities do you think a leader is expected to perform (i.e., daily tasks and projects)?

  

a.      What activities should a leader be able to do that involve working with people?

  

b.     What activities should a leader be able to do that involve self-awareness or insight into their personal experiences?

  

c.      What activities should a leader be able to do that involve expertise in an area and the ability to complete a task successfully?

 

d.     What activities should a leader be able to do that involve changing or adapting to change or using innovative strategies?

  

e.      What activities should a leader be able to do that involve ethical decisions and acting with social and moral responsibility?

 

 

Leadership Development Survey

 

Instructions:  Below you will find several questions that ask about different features of leadership.  When considering these questions, please think about the leadership roles that you have experienced since you graduated from CMU.  For each question, please list as many options that you can think of.  To begin typing, simply position the cursor in the first box and left-click once with the mouse.  You may then type your response.  When you are finished simply press an ARROW KEY or the TAB button to navigate to a new box.  Remember to save your responses by clicking on the SAVE button once completed.  Please be as thorough and descriptive as possible, for each question is crucial to our development of a model for leadership competencies.  Thank you very much for taking the time to participate in our survey and help further the development of leadership at CMU.

 

  1. What competencies, qualities, abilities, or characteristics do you think are important for leadership development (e.g., integrity or the ability to influence others)?

  

  1. Please list characteristics of a typical working environment where a Leader works (e.g., dynamic environment, fast-paced).

  

a.      What aspects of the Leader’s environment involve working with others?

  

b.     What aspects of the Leader’s environment involve knowledge or awareness of one’s self or control of one’s own emotions?

  

c.      What aspects of the Leader’s environment involve the successful and efficient completion of tasks?

  

d.     What aspects of the Leader’s environment involve innovation or being able to institute and adapt to change?

 

e.      What aspects of the Leader’s environment involve ethical decisions and acting with social and moral responsibility?

  

5.      What strategic factors (e.g., mission statement, vision, global concerns, etc.) must a Leader be aware of and be able to adapt to?

 

a.      What strategic factors involve working with others?

  

b.     What strategic factors involve knowledge of one’s self or the ability to control one’s emotions?

  

c.      What strategic factors involve being able to successfully and efficiently complete tasks?

  

d.     What strategic factors involve innovation or being able to institute and adapt to change?

  

e.      What strategic factors involve ethical decisions and acting with social and moral responsibility?

 

Critical Incident Survey for Leadership Competencies

 

Instructions:  This survey is designed to help us understand more about leadership in order to help Central Michigan University’s Leadership Institute.  On the next page you will find three competencies that are important for leaders: Self-Management, Leading Others, and Social Responsibility.  As an alumnus of CMU, you have a unique perspective on leadership and what a Leader can do to be effective or ineffective.  On the following pages, please give an example of a critical incident that exemplifies exceptional leadership and a critical incident that exemplifies poor leadership for each competency.  These critical incidents may come from your own experiences or from watching a Leader and how they handled a situation.  To enter your response, simply click once inside the appropriate box and begin typing.

 

What is a critical incident?

A critical incident is an example of a behavior where

 

How do I write a critical incident?

Be sure to include in your description of the behavior/incident…

 

An example of a good critical incident for a bus driver follows…

 

After picking up his passengers at their stop, the bus driver began driving but noticed that a car was pulled over on the side of the road with smoke coming from the top of the car.  Realizing that if he stopped to assist the person he would make his passengers late for their respective destinations, the bus driver instead radioed 911 to call for police and paramedics to assist the person.  On his next stop around, the bus driver noticed that the police and ambulance were there assisting the person who was unharmed.

 

An example of a poor critical incident for a bus driver follows…

 

Already running a little behind schedule, the bus driver began to speed and change lanes quickly to try to get back on schedule.  During a lane shift, the bus driver failed to signal and check if anyone was in the lane.  The bus struck the front portion of a car in the next lane as it changed lanes.  Still worried that he was running behind schedule, the bus driver failed to stop and make sure the other driver was okay or radio the police.  The other driver then called the police and filed a report against the bus driver.  The bus driver was fired as a result of the accident and complaint.


 

Please give a critical incident for a Leader for each of the six boxes below.

 

 

Self-Management:  Knowledge of one’s self, values, strengths, and limitations.  Ability to control one’s emotions and behaviors, and the willingness to seek personal development.  Ability to manage and adapt to stressful or dynamic situations.

Good

 

Poor

 

 

 

 

Leading Others:  Leaders must maximize the potential of others to meet the organization’s vision, mission, and goals.  They must be able to manage individual and group performance and interpersonal issues.  Leaders must actively listen and communicate effectively to build consensus and trust.

Good

 

Poor

 

 

 

Social Responsibility:  Acts with integrity, honesty, and justice.  Acts in the best interest of others, showing respect and empathy for unique individual and cultural differences.  Recognizes and conducts oneself in concert with universal moral principles as well as specific values, laws, and ethics relevant to the group one leads.

Good

 

Poor

 

 

Critical Incident Survey for Leadership Competencies

 

Instructions:  This survey is designed to help us understand more about leadership in order to help Central Michigan University’s Leadership Institute.  On the next page you will find three competencies that are important for leaders: Leading Others, Task-Management, and Innovation.  As an alumnus of CMU, you have a unique perspective on leadership and what a Leader can do to be effective or ineffective.  On the following pages, please give an example of a critical incident that exemplifies exceptional leadership and a critical incident that exemplifies poor leadership for each competency.  These critical incidents may come from your own experiences or from watching a Leader and how they handled a situation.  To enter your response, simply click once inside the appropriate box and begin typing.

 

What is a critical incident?

A critical incident is an example of a behavior where

 

How do I write a critical incident?

Be sure to include in your description of the behavior/incident…

 

An example of a good critical incident for a bus driver follows…

 

After picking up his passengers at their stop, the bus driver began driving but noticed that a car was pulled over on the side of the road with smoke coming from the top of the car.  Realizing that if he stopped to assist the person he would make his passengers late for their respective destinations, the bus driver instead radioed 911 to call for police and paramedics to assist the person.  On his next stop around, the bus driver noticed that the police and ambulance were there assisting the person who was unharmed.

 

An example of a poor critical incident for a bus driver follows…

 

Already running a little behind schedule, the bus driver began to speed and change lanes quickly to try to get back on schedule.  During a lane shift, the bus driver failed to signal and check if anyone was in the lane.  The bus struck the front portion of a car in the next lane as it changed lanes.  Still worried that he was running behind schedule, the bus driver failed to stop and make sure the other driver was okay or radio the police.  The other driver then called the police and filed a report against the bus driver.  The bus driver was fired as a result of the accident and complaint.


 

Please give a critical incident for a Leader for each of the six boxes below.

 

 

Leading Others:  Leaders must maximize the potential of others to meet the organization’s vision, mission, and goals.  They must be able to manage individual and group performance and interpersonal issues.  Leaders must actively listen and communicate effectively to build consensus and trust.

Good

 

Poor

 

 

 

 

Task-Management:  Involves using task-specific knowledge and experience to achieve strategic goals of the group and/or organization.  This may include, but is not limited to: goal setting, delegation, time management, and problem solving.  A successful task manager will often assert leadership over others in a positive manner, exhibit dependability, and display good work ethics.

Good

 

Poor

 

 

Innovation:  Ability to think creatively while taking initiative and calculated risks.  Demonstrating vision creation and strategic planning.  Recognizing opportunities and resources.  Pursuing diverse experiences and integrating interdisciplinary perspectives.

Good

 

Poor

 

 

Back to top
 

Appendix L: Surveys for Employers

 

Leadership Competence Survey

    Thank you for your willingness to provide feedback to the Leadership Institute at Central Michigan University.  As an employer of CMU students, your input about leadership competencies is very valuable information as we strive to develop leaders for the future.  As you fill out this survey, please focus your attention on the new employees that are hired directly out of college.

 

In considering the expectations of the new employee on the typical first job assignment, what activities most require leadership competence?

 

How valuable is leadership development in the strategic mission of your organization?

 

Where do you see the value of leadership in your organization in the future?  How do you think the concept of leadership is changing?

 

What are some specific competencies a new employee must have when they are dealing with the individuals they are responsible for?

 

What do you think are the most important self-management competencies a new employee must have to be effective?

 

As you look to the future of your organization, what leadership competencies are most important for your employees to have or to develop during their careers?

 

 

Leadership Competence Survey

Thank you for your willingness to provide feedback to the Leadership Institute at Central Michigan University.  As an employer of CMU students, your input about leadership competencies is very valuable information as we strive to develop leaders for the future.  As you fill out this survey, please focus your attention on the new employees that are hired directly out of college.

 

Please describe the typical type of job that a new employee would experience in your organization?  Please include a general description of the type of work, and the work environment?  What is the organizational culture like?  Is the organization multinational?

 

What are the interpersonal situations that new employees typically encounter?  Do they have any subordinates?  Do they work in teams or groups of some sort? 

 

The following are five categories of leadership competence.  Please rank each of these competency categories based on how important each one is for the success of the new employee in your organization.  Please rank order all five categories, assigning “1” to the most important category and “5” to the least important.  No two categories can have the same rank.  

1 = Very Unimportant

2 = Somewhat Unimportant

3 = Neither Important nor Unimportant

4 = Somewhat Important

5 = Very Important

 

                    _____ Self-Management

                    _____ Leading Others

                    _____ Task Management

                    _____ Innovation

                    _____ Social Responsibility

 

Now, please rate each of the categories for importance on a scale of 1 to 5.  Rate each one individually.  More than one category may have the same rating.

1 = Very Unimportant

2 = Somewhat Unimportant

3 = Neither Important nor Unimportant

4 = Somewhat Important

5 = Very Important

                    _____ Self-Management

                    _____ Leading Others

                    _____ Task Management

                    _____ Innovation

                    _____ Social Responsibility

 

What do you think are the most important task management competencies one must have to be effective as a new employee?

 

What are some specific competencies a new employee must have to be an innovative leader?

 

What do you think are the most important competencies one must have to be a socially responsible leader?

 

 

Critical Incident Survey

EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE

Please think back to a specific time when an employee performed excellently in [insert competency].

What led up to the incident and what was the setting in which it occurred?

 

What exactly did the new employee do that was very effective? 

 

What were the outcomes of this effective behavior for the organization or for the individual?

 

 

POOR PERFORMANCE

Please think back to a specific time when an employee performed very poorly in [insert competency].

What led up to the incident and what was the setting in which it occurred?

 

What exactly did the new employee do that was so effective?

 

What were the outcomes of this ineffective behavior for the organization or for the individual?


 

Back to top

 

Appendix M: Interview Guide for Faculty

Interview Guide for Faculty Interviews

 

1.      Tell me about what leaders in your discipline are like -- not academics but leaders in the applied settings.

Probes:

      Self-Management

      Leading Others

      Task-Management

      Innovation

      Social Responsibility

2.      How is leadership in your discipline affected by the context of work, that is, the work environment, organizational culture, the way work is performed, etc.?

Probes:

      Self-Management

      Leading Others

      Task-Management

      Innovation

      Social Responsibility

3.  Describe the specific activities and responsibilities of leaders in your discipline. Please describe specific       behaviors that are particularly relevant to leadership in your discipline.

    Probes:

      Self-Management

      Leading Others

      Task-Management

      Innovation

      Social Responsibility

4.      Think about the future of your discipline. How are leadership roles going to change in the next twenty years.

    Probes:

      Self-Management

      Leading Others

      Task-Management

      Innovation

      Social Responsibility

5.      How well are students at CMU prepared to take on leadership roles in your discipline

    Probes:

What could be do better in order to prepare CMU students to take on leadership roles?

Are there particular classes that you would recommend that prepare students for

leadership roles?

Are there any extra-curricular experiences that you feel better prepare students to obtain leadership positions in their future careers?

 

Back to top

 

Appendix N: Interview Guides for Leadership Council

LEADERSHIP COUNCIL STRUCTURED INTERVIEW GUIDE

Competencies

Suppose you are responsible for selecting someone to fill a leadership position. Describe what you would look for in a potential candidate, including positive indicators and warning signs that the person would not be a successful leader.

            More specifically, what knowledge skills and abilities do you believe are required for successful leadership?

            Of the skills and abilities you mentioned, which do you believe one could learn through course work and/or training programs and which do you believe          one could NOT learn through course work and/or training programs?

Strategic Factors

Regarding the future success of CMU, why is developing tomorrow’s leaders a crucial strategy for this university?

            In your opinion, to what degree is CMU focusing on leadership development? 

            What do you believe are successful strategies for programs trying to focus on leadership development?

Work Activities

Now think about what a leader does. What duties and/or activities do leaders generally perform?

            Are there any activities you believe a successful leader shouldn’t be performing (i.e. delegating to others)?

Are there any past activities or experiences that one may have had that would contribute to successful leadership?

Are there any tools or technology that you feel significantly contribute to the practice of successful leadership?

----How proficient must a leader be in their ability to use these tools?

Work Contexts

Please think about the different situations settings or conditions in which leaders are expected to perform.  Overall, what types of settings or conditions are ideal for successful leadership to occur?

            Which conditions or settings do you feel pose the greatest challenge for those in leadership positions?

 

 

LEADERSHIP COUNCIL

SURVEY OF CRITICAL LEADERSHIP INCIDENTS

 

The purpose of this survey is to gather information about leadership behaviors that are necessary for successful performance. The critical incident example below is an anecdote of a leadership activity that could be considered an example of outstanding leadership performance:

A misunderstanding developed between the data processing team and the data collection team. The project leader met with both the data processing team leader and the data collection team leader to investigate the problem. The project leader worked to develop compromise solutions with both team leaders and the misunderstanding was resolved.

Using the following questions as a guide, please give an example of a critical leadership incident that exemplifies outstanding leadership performance and a critical leadership incident that exemplifies poor leadership performance.  

     Please describe a specific situation in which you or a colleague in a leadership role exhibited superior leadership performance. In your description, please include what led up to the incident and the setting in which it occurred. 

What did this person do, specifically, that qualified their behavior as superior?

 

What were the specific consequences of the person’s actions, and were these consequences actually within this person’s control?

     Now describe a situation in which someone in a leadership role exhibited extremely poor leadership performance. Remember to include what led up to the incident and the setting in which it occurred. 

What did this person do, specifically, that qualified their behavior as extremely poor?

 

What were the specific consequences of their actions, and were these consequences actually within this person’s control?

 

Back to top

 

Appendix O: Interview Guides for Administrators

 

            The following is my structured interview for administrative personnel at CMU. I’m planning on establishing a rapport with the individuals, either over the phone or in person. I’ll then ask them if it is most convenient for them to fill out the structured interview through email, or if they would like me to write down their answers.

Competencies

Q: What are some competencies that you think are important, or essential, to the leadership program?

Probes: Can you think of any other competencies that might be beneficial, maybe even tangentially related?

                                    Why do you think these competencies are most important?

                                    Of these competencies you’ve mentioned, which are the top five?

                                    Why are these competencies most important?

Work Activities

            Q: What are the work activities that are associated with the aforementioned competencies?

                        Probes: Which of these are most frequently conducted?

                                    Which of these activities is most critical, and why?

Work Contexts

            Q: In what types of contexts will these activities take place?

                        Probes: Which contexts are most common, and why?

                                    Which do you think will require the most training for?

Strategic Factors

            Q: Of the previously mentioned competencies, which are those that you see as important to the direction and strategic mission of the leadership department?

Probes: Which strategic competencies do you view as most important, and why?

Which of these competencies are in most accord with the strategic goals of the leadership program?

 

Critical Incidents Interview

 

The following is a set of questions regarding the best and worst examples of effective leadership behaviors.


 

  1. What is the best example of self-management behavior you’ve seen displayed (e.g. by coworker, team leader, etc)?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

 

  
    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?


 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  
     
  1. What is the worst example of self-management behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

  
    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  

 

  1. What is the best example of managing change behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

  

    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  
 
    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  
 
  1. What is the worst example of managing change behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

  

    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  
 
  1. What is the best example of interpersonal behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

  
    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  
 
  1. What is the worst example of interpersonal behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

  
    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  

 

  1. What is the best example of social awareness/ethical behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

 

    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  

  1. What is the worst example of social awareness/ethical behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

  

    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  

  1. Overall (regardless of competency), what is the best example of leadership behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

  
    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

  

  1. Overall (regardless of competency), what is the worst example of leadership behavior you’ve seen displayed?

 

    1. What led up to this incident?

  

 
    1. What where the consequences of the employees actions?

  

 

    1. Was this incident under the control of the employee?

Back to top

Appendix P: Highlights from Interviews with the University Community

Students

After interviewing fifteen student leaders on campus, several facets of the five competencies emerged as mostly important to student leadership. Communicating with members of the group, persuading and actively listening were reported as key aspects of leading others. The student leaders emphasized the need for organization and time management as well as the ability to delegate responsibility to appropriate people. Encouraging new ideas from members and deliberation were important aspects of innovative leadership. Finally, ethical leaders must value diversity as well as act with integrity and honesty and abide by rules and regulations.

Alumni
A major recurring theme from alumni in assessing the competencies of leadership was the notion of honesty and integrity.  These words appeared very frequently, along with related concepts like being willing to admit mistakes and acknowledge when help is needed from others.  Another central theme concerned the team-orientation of the leader.  It was frequently acknowledged that leaders should have good communication and listening skills, motivate and inspire others, be able to understand diverse viewpoints, and be able to resolve conflicts as they arise.
 

Leadership Council

Overall, the council emphasized the importance of the leader not being focused on their own agenda.  The idea that the leader is a servant of their organization or group was a common theme. The Leadership Council also heavily stressed the aspect of building trust and creating consensus, with an emphasis on leaders creating a culture where various ideas/points of view are celebrated instead of discouraged.  Additionally, two members cited communication skills as the number one factor in discriminating effective leaders from ineffective leaders. At least two people also stressed the importance of examining the leader’s effectiveness through observing the activities of the leader’s group when the leader is absent. Great leaders are able to be absent and their group will still work toward the greater goal that the leader set forth.

 

Faculty

According to a number of faculty members interviewed, leadership skills are universal. Although context may have a minor impact on the specific skills needed to lead, in general someone who has the competency to be a successful leader in one setting will be effective in other settings as well. For example, the same competencies that make a strong military leader often make a strong civilian leader. Critical thinking and problem solving are leadership competencies endorsed by faculty across different disciplines. When considering the future of leadership across disciplines, faculty members emphasized the importance of leading in groups. In certain domains, faculty interviewed felt that stress tolerance is the most important core competency for self-management. Communication skills, the ability to motivate and empower others through experiential learning, and political savvy were identified as critical for success in leading others.

 

Administrators
Several administrators of CMU provided their insights about leadership. The idea of social responsibility, often referred to as integrity or ethical behavior, emerged as the most important and consistent competency across all interviewees. Other common themes that emerged were the ideas of giving and receiving feedback, leading by example, and accountability. The idea of leadership competencies being compensatory was also put forth. That is, there is a minimum requirement of overall competency to become a leader, however leaders should recognize their strengths and weaknesses so they can select a team to fill in those gaps and then delegate tasks that they aren’t as strong in to their constituents. 

 

Employers

According to employers of CMU graduates, the working situation of most new graduates is high paced and demanding in task management. There is also a large emphasis on teams with some people having subordinates and leading others immediately.  Leadership abilities and experience are very important in these jobs and in the future of the organizations.  A question on the importance of each of the factors indicated that the self management and leading others factors seem to be consistently a bit more important than task management, Innovation and social responsibility, with social responsibility being noted as highly important a few times.  However, this should be taken in light of the fact that there was very little difference in the importance of each dimension.  Specifically, important competencies that were frequently identified by employers included:: time management and resilience (self management), communication, motivation (leading others), organization skills (task management), fresh “out of the box” thinking and courage to take risks (innovation), be open to ideas of others, honesty, and respect (social responsibility). 

Back to top

Leadership Central Home
Competency Model Leadership Assessment Development Plan Development Guide Research Reports
CMU Psychology Department About This Site About Us
©2004