Cognitive Aspects to Personality

 

1. Bandura's Social Learning Theory


"Cognitive Social"
: conceptions and methods dealing with persons both as cognitive and as social beings are essential elements in an adequate psychological theory of individuality.

 

A. Pavlov/Skinner vs. Bandura

 

 

 

Pavlov/Skinner

 

Bandura

 

 

 

 

 

Behavior is learned

 

 

 

Learning

 

Classical conditioning

Operant conditioning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning process

 

 

Direct link between S and R / or behavior and reinforcer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Method

 

Lab research with animals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B. Reciprocal determinism: personality develops through a process of reciprocal determinism--Personal, behavioral, and situational factors are continuously interacting to determine what we do and think.

 

C. Observational learning

Observational learning is the process through which the behavior as one person, an observer, changes as a result of merely being exposed to the behavior of another, the model.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imitative effects

 

 

 

 

 

 

direct imitation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modeling cues are acquired or recalled

 

 

 

indirective imitation (facilitation):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Observation of live or symbolic modeling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Counterimitative effects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

direct counterimitation:

 

 

 

Modeling cues are not acquired or not recalled

 

 

 

indirect counterimitation (inhibition):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Noimitation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exposure

 

Acquisition:

 

 

Acceptance:

 

 

 

 

a) Acceptance can take one of four forms: Imitation or counterimitation, either of which can be direct of indirect.

 

b) Imitation is acting as the model did. Counterimitation is acting in the opposite way. When modeling has a direct influence and the observer engages in the same behavior as the model, this is direct imitation. Indirect imitation involves behaving similarly to the model. Indirect counterimitation involves behaving differently than the model.

 

c) Forms of acceptance of modeling cues

 

Situation: five-year-old Tom often sees his parents donate money

to charities

 

 

 

Type of acceptance

 

 

 

Examples

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tom puts a coin in the collection box at church

 

 

 

 

 

Tom shares his toys with his friends

 

 

 

 

 

Tom walks past the collection box at church without donating

 

 

 

 

 

Tom does not allow his friends to play with his toys

 

 

 

 

 

Tom's behavior is unaffected by observing his parent's behavior

 

 

** Bobo doll study

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d) Three factors that influence modeling

 

1) The characteristics of the models

 

 

 

2) The characteristics of the observers

 

 

 

 

3) Vicarious consequences:

 

 

 

 

        Vicarious reward

         

 

        Vicarious punishment:

 

 

 

D. Self

a. Self-reinforcement

 

Self-reinforcement is at least as important as reinforcement administered by others, particularly for older children and adults : (ex) allowing yourself to buy a car or eat ice-cream.

b. Self-efficacy

 

a) How well we meet our standard of behavior determines our sense of self-efficacy. It refers to our feeling of adequacy, efficiency, and competence in coping with life. Meeting and maintaining our performance standards enhances self- efficacy;

 

b) People low in self-efficacy feel helpless, unable to exercise any influence over their life's events. People high in self-efficacy believe they can deal effectively with the events and situations they face.

 

c) A person's judgment about his/her level of self-efficacy is based on four sources of information.

 

1) performance accomplishment: it is a powerful source of efficacy information. Previous success experiences provide direct indications of our level mastery and competence.

2) vicarious experience: it can generate expectations in observers that they too can "do it."

3) verbal persuasion: By being told that they can "do it," people come to believe that they can

4) emotional/physiological arousal: our level of fear or calmness in a stressful situations. People are more inclined to expect success when they are not beset by aversive arousal than if they are tense and agitated.

 

E. Developmental stages of modeling