http://www.beliefnet.com/features/abrahamicfaiths.html

How do Judaism, Christianity, and Islam differ?

  JUDAISM CHRISTIANITY ISLAM
God One god One god One god
Central Prophet Moses Jesus Christ Muhammad
Scripture Torah, Prophets, Writings and the Talmud (oral tradition and commentary) Bible (Old and New Testaments) Qur'an (God's revelation to Muhammad) and Hadith (Mohammed's sayings)
War Peace is always preferable, but war in self-defense is considered obligatory. 'Just war' can be fought as a last resort; tradition of non-violent resistance. War should be fought only in self-defense, within strict limits.
Divisions Modern movements include Reform, Conservative, Modern Orthodox and Reconstructionist. Many theological divisions and schisms: Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, numerous Protestant churches. Sunni-Shiite schism based on disagreement over Mohammed's successors; broad debate over Islam's role in modern society; little theological debate.
Fundamentalism Ultra-Orthodox Jews reject the secular world and live in strict communities. Debate over literal meaning of the Bible; efforts to bring religion into daily life. Return to "pure" Islam; rejection of secular culture; efforts to bring religion into daily life and create an Islamic state.
Holy City Jerusalem Jerusalem Mecca
Jesus A historical figure; not the Messiah. The Son of God. Highly respected as the second-last prophet before Mohammed.
Hierarchy No hierarchy; rabbis are considered teachers. Catholics and Orthodox have extensive hierarchy; some Protestant branches have almost none. No hierarchy; prayers are led by imams (teachers) who have studied the Qur'an.
Idols & Images Images and statues forbidden. Images and statues allowed in some denominations, but not worshiped. Images and statues forbidden.
Charity Tzedakah: 10 percent of income. Tithe: 10 percent of income. Zakat: 2.5 percent of total wealth each year.
Proselytizing No proselytizing; Jews must turn away would-be converts three times to ensure their commitment. Conversion considered important in most traditions; Catholic and Protestant churches have missionaries. Da'wa: Muslims should share their knowledge of Islam without trying to convert. Only God can bring someone to Islam.
Women Men and women are equal in the eyes of God; traditional Judaism prescribes different roles for men and women. Orthodox men and women worship separately. Men and women worship together. Some Protestant churches ordain women as priests. More... Men and women are generally treated the same in the Koran, although women are oppressed in many Muslim cultures today. Men and women worship separately.
House of Worship Synagogue Church Mosque
Main Day of Worship Saturday Sunday Friday
Diet Must keep "kosher": no pork or certain seafood; other meat to be killed by kosher method; separation of meat and dairy. No dietary restrictions. No pork; other meat should be prepared by the halal method. No alcohol.

 
Life After Death No immediate life after death; life in the "world to come" after the coming of the Messiah. Day of Judgment, followed by Heaven or Hell. Day of Judgment, followed by Heaven or Hell.

 
Mysticism Kabbalah Numerous mystical traditions Sufism